The Georgian culture has evolved over the country’s long history, providing it with a unique culture and a strong literary traditions based on the Georgian languages and alphabet. This has provided a strong sense of national identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated periods of foreign occupations.
The Georgian alphabet is traditionally said to have been invented in the 5th century BC and reformed by King Parnavaz I of Iberia in 284 BC. Most modern scholarship puts its origin date at some time in the 5th century AD, when the earliest examples can be found.
Georgia's medieval culture was greatly influenced by Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Apostolic Church, which promoted and often sponsored the creation of many works of religious devotion. These included churches and monasteries, works of art such as icons and hagiographies of Georgian saints. In addition, many secular works of national history, mythology and hagiography were also written.